Alcohol and drugs have been a part of Persianate Culture over long centuries. When dealing with historiographical sources, we read about social gatherings and wine drinking, about drunken rulers and drug consumption. Persian poetry also alludes to wine, leaving it open whether we have to understand the wine and drunkenness in a metaphorical way or literally. Drug consumption and drug trafficking is a problem of contemporary Iran, too, with many efforts to prevent both from the side of the Iranian government. Drug consumption and drug production are a serious issue in Afghanistan, too.